…globus pallidus, and (4) the amygdala. The limbic lobe manages psychological responses to emotional stimuli ( 1 ). The limbic system is also known as the “primitive brain.” It’s function allows you to adapt to your everyday environment. For olfactory stimuli, the cortico-medial amygdala is known to mediate innate emotional behaviour. The limbic system, also known as the paleomammalian cortex, is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the medial temporal lobe of the cerebrum primarily in the forebrain. The name amygdala is derived from the Greek word amygdale, meaning “almond,” owing to the structure’s almondlike shape. It plays a major role in regulating hormones, the pituitary gland, body temperature, the adrenal glands, and many other vital activities. It is also responsible for processing emotions such as fear, pleasure, and anger. Omissions? The amygdala plays a prominent role in mediating many aspects of emotional learning and behaviour. The limbic system is a complex set of structures that lies on both sides of the thalamus, just under the cerebrum. The word amygdala means almond and this part of the brain was aptly named for its almond shape. That deficit appears to be due to difficulties in directing attention to the eyes of others, which is important for discerning fear. One of its main functions is to help us to recognize potential threats when we encounter them. The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on top of the brainstem and buried under the cortex. Most prominently, the amygdala receives dense input from the prefrontal cortex, especially from the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices. The cognitive control of emotion is an important process to understand, given its critical role in normal adaptive emotional behaviour. Olfactory (smell) information flows directly into the cortico-medial amygdala from the olfactory bulb and pyriform cortex, both of which function in the sense of smell. It is called the “feeling or reactive brain” and is responsible for the formation of memories. This type of paradigm, often referred to as fear conditioning, can result in robust learning, owing to the convergence of sensory information about the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus. The limbic system serves a variety of fundamental cognitive and emotional functions. Dysfunction within the amygdala and the neural circuits connecting the amygdala with a variety of cortical and subcortical structures likely contributes to the pathophysiology (disease-associated physiological processes) of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Amygdala The amygdala is an almond-shaped structure located within the anterior portion of the temporal lobes, comprising a component of the limbic system and known to play a part in controlling emotion, motivation, and memory. The limbic system is essentially a grouping of brain structures including the amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus, believed to be responsible for our emotional lives and the formation of memories. It connects areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in sensory perception and movement with other parts of the brain and spinal cord that also have a role in sensation and movement. Extinction, which itself is a learning process, is induced by the repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of a previously associated unconditioned stimulus, resulting in the elimination of a previously elicited response. The hypothalamus has important links to pleasure and misery, while the reticular formation may have an important link to depression. The amygdala is part of the limbic system, a neural network that mediates many aspects of emotion and memory. Part of the forebrain known as the diencephalon is also included in the limbic system. The amygdala (plural: amygdalae) is a very well studied part of the limbic system and forms part of the mesial temporal lobe. Projections from the prefrontal cortex to the amygdala mediate extinction, with complex circuitry involving the central nucleus, the basolateral complex, and the intercalated masses playing a role in the modification of responses to previously conditioned stimuli.